D4.3 Computational modeling and prediction engine

This aim of this document is to describe the multi-scale model developed in the framework of T4.3 for the pulmonary system. The structural representation of the followed modelling approach is presented together with geometry processing methods, for the definition of coupled 1D-3D patient specific representation of the lung geometry. In addition, lumped model representation of the lung is introduced, along with, a novel interactive tool which has been developed for processing the airways geometry and simulating bronchoconstriction, and asthma induced ventilation asymmetry.
The patient specific 3d model will be used as input for computational fluid dynamics in order to extract pressure and velocity distributions for different ventilation conditions (high rate respiration, slow rate respiration) and for a full breathing cycle (inspiratory ventilation, expiratory ventilation). The preliminary version of D4.3 included the methodologies which have been used and the developed interactive tools focused on the structural modeling and the execution of computational fluid dynamics. In the current version of the deliverable, geometry processing methods have been included for extended lung geometry, for measuring the airway narrowing, for addressing apparent edge effects and for using lumped lung models to cope with computational intractability issues when extending the lung geometry higher than the 14th generation. Additionally, the particle deposition patterns have been examined and correlated to heterogeneous ventilation and additional lung function related characteristics like airway resistance have been analyzed. The 3D model parameterization using spirometry and exhaled Nitric Oxide Data, and the interactive simulation for estimating particle deposition patterns and evaluating their effects have been also investigated.
More specifically, this final version of D4.3 is organized as follows: initially the structural modelling of the lung is presented along with parameterization and deformation methodology. In the next section, computational fluid simulation setup and results are described. Finally, this document presents calculations for the estimation of particles’ trajectories in the lung airways and the components of the particle velocity. Relevant forces acting on the particle have been also taken into account.